About this Course
최근 조회 5,338

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지금 바로 시작해 나만의 일정에 따라 학습을 진행하세요.

유동적 마감일

일정에 따라 마감일을 재설정합니다.

완료하는 데 약 27시간 필요

권장: 4 hours/week...

영어

자막: 영어

100% 온라인

지금 바로 시작해 나만의 일정에 따라 학습을 진행하세요.

유동적 마감일

일정에 따라 마감일을 재설정합니다.

완료하는 데 약 27시간 필요

권장: 4 hours/week...

영어

자막: 영어

강의 계획 - 이 강좌에서 배울 내용

1
완료하는 데 2시간 필요

Session 1

At the dawn of genetics, in the work of Mendel and Morgan, there was a complete void between the genes and the characters they determine.During the first week, we will discuss the relationship between genes and enzymes. We will start with the description of alkaptonuria by Garrod, in 1902, which he called a few years later an inborn error of metabolism. This was the first documented example of a human recessive trait, the first association of a human condition with Mendel’s principles and the first link between a gene and an enzyme. This work and that of Cuénot on mice fur color were essentially forgotten in the biology community in the following decades.After working with great difficulty on the enzymatic cascade that leads to the formation of the pigmented eye of fruit flies, Beadle and Tatum founded the field of biochemical genetics by isolating conditional mutants that affect the synthesis of vitamins and amino acids. This was first done with a mold, and then extended to bacteria. These experiments lead to the “one gene, one enzyme” hypothesis. While the hypothesis is now proven in many cases, the exceptions, including multigene enzymes, structural and enzymatic RNAs have expanded the concept rather than invalidating it.

...
7 videos (Total 107 min), 2 readings, 1 quiz
7개의 동영상
Part 316m
Part 425m
Part 526m
Part 67m
2개의 읽기 자료
Figures in this module10m
Readings (to be read before lectures 4-6)10m
1개 연습문제
Beadle & Tatum10m
2
완료하는 데 2시간 필요

Session 2

Most people believed that genes must be made of proteins because nucleic acids were considered too simple to carry genetic information. Avery worked all his life on Pneumococcus and bacterial pneumonia. Griffith showed that transformation of a non-virulent strain can be achieved in mice by coinjection of heat-killed virulent bacteria. Avery’s lab managed to obtain transformation in the test tube, but it took many years to establish a reliable assay and finally to purify the molecule responsible for this effect, which turned out to be DNA. Although this work was well known, most scientists were not convinced of the general implication of this phenomenon. Furthermore, many biochemists believed that even the purified DNA was contaminated with a protein. Finally, transformation was a very inefficient process and the mechanism of transformation remained mysterious for many years. The work of Hershey and Chase finally convinced the scientific community that genes are made of DNA. We now realize that exchange of DNA by transformation is very common, and participates to the horizontal transfer of DNA between at least bacterial species, and was a considerable accelerator of evolution

...
7 videos (Total 95 min), 2 readings, 1 quiz
7개의 동영상
Part 413m
Part 511m
Part 610m
Part 7 - Quantitative analysis of transformation19m
2개의 읽기 자료
Figures in this module10m
Readings (to be read before lectures 4-6)10m
1개 연습문제
Avery Questions20m
3
완료하는 데 2시간 필요

Session 3

The origin of mutations was a field of heavy discussions between proponents of Darwinism and those of Lamarckism. The major issue was to define an experimental approach that would unambiguously discriminate between mutations occurring at random and mutations caused by the selective agent used to reveal their existence. In the case of bacteria that became resistant to the lytic action of a bacteriophage, the hypotheses were labeled “mutation to immunity” versus “acquired immunity”. Luria and Delbrück realized that the variations observed in the number of resistant bacteria in different parallel cultures were intimately linked to the mutation hypothesis. This exceptional collaboration between a theoretical physicist and a bacteriologist is a perfect example of interdisciplinary work, while these two “enemy aliens” were working in the USA. At that time, it was not even clear that bacteria had genes and most bacteriology work was only descriptive. The use of a quantitative approach allowed the authors to settle the question. The fluctuation test is a very powerful tool to calculate mutation rates. Soon after, Newcombe did a simple but elegant experiment to demonstrate that the increased number of resistant bacteria that are detected upon clonal expansion reflects both the amplification of preexisting mutants and the continuous occurrence of new mutations.

...
4 videos (Total 77 min), 2 readings, 1 quiz
4개의 동영상
Part 430m
2개의 읽기 자료
Figures in this module10m
Readings: Read the papers before watching Part 3 & Part 410m
1개 연습문제
Origin of mutations14m
4
완료하는 데 2시간 필요

Session 4

When DNA was found to be the genetic material, it was not known how this molecule could carry information. The structure of DNA thus became of critical importance. The available X-ray images obtained by M. Wilkins and R. Franklin only yielded a rough picture, and even R. Franklin, who had the clearest diffraction data, could not decide whether the molecules contained two or three strands. Both Pauling and Watson and Crick used molecular models with known inter-nuclear distances (bond length) and bond angles to predict a structure. While the model of Pauling was hardly realistic, since it used the protonated form of the phosphate, the model proposed by Watson and Crick proposed that DNA consists of a pair of DNA strands. Furthermore, it indicated that any nucleotide sequence could be accommodated in the structure. The only central biological issue that was addressed in the first paper was replication, and the famous sentence was really nothing more than a priority claim. Much more biology was discussed in the second paper. It was assumed that base pairing is sufficient to account for the fidelity of replication. The importance of DNA polymerase in replication fidelity was first demonstrated by Speyer.

...
5 videos (Total 69 min), 2 readings, 1 quiz
5개의 동영상
Part 423m
Part 58m
2개의 읽기 자료
Figures in this module10m
Read the papers before watching parts 3 to 510m
1개 연습문제
DNA structure and the fidelity of replication14m
4.7
26개의 리뷰Chevron Right

Classical papers in molecular genetics의 최상위 리뷰

대학: BSMar 25th 2016

Outstanding: the classic papers are always the best primary source of information!

대학: SWJun 1st 2016

Very cool. Love to hear about these scientists and their lives and efforts

강사

Avatar

Dominique Belin

Professor
Department of Pathology and Immunology University of Geneva Medical School

제네바대학교 정보

Founded in 1559, the University of Geneva (UNIGE) is one of Europe's leading universities. Devoted to research, education and dialogue, the UNIGE shares the international calling of its host city, Geneva, a centre of international and multicultural activities with a venerable cosmopolitan tradition....

자주 묻는 질문

  • 강좌에 등록하면 바로 모든 비디오, 테스트 및 프로그래밍 과제(해당하는 경우)에 접근할 수 있습니다. 상호 첨삭 과제는 이 세션이 시작된 경우에만 제출하고 검토할 수 있습니다. 강좌를 구매하지 않고 살펴보기만 하면 특정 과제에 접근하지 못할 수 있습니다.

  • 수료증을 구매하면 성적 평가 과제를 포함한 모든 강좌 자료에 접근할 수 있습니다. 강좌를 완료하면 전자 수료증이 성취도 페이지에 추가되며, 해당 페이지에서 수료증을 인쇄하거나 LinkedIn 프로필에 수료증을 추가할 수 있습니다. 강좌 콘텐츠만 읽고 살펴보려면 해당 강좌를 무료로 청강할 수 있습니다.

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